Orbital Observatory “Hubble” opened unusually bright and a big black hole in the early Universe, reached the impossibly high mass in just 850 million years after the Big Bang. The description and pictures were presented on the website of the space telescope.
“We have been looking for such an object, and studying the most distant outskirts of the cosmos. Our calculations show that the brighter quasars in the early Universe and even today will likely not exist,” said Shaohua fan (Xiaohui Fan) of the University of Arizona in Tucson (USA),RIA Novosti reported.
It is believed that in the center of the most massive galaxies live supermassive black holes, whose mass can be above the sun in a few million or billion times. Initially, scientists believed that such objects occurred in the same way as their normal “cousins” – as a result of gravitational collapse of stars and the subsequent mergers of several large black holes.
Observing the first galaxies of the Universe have forced astrophysicists to doubt it – it turned out that they contained black holes with a mass of tens of billions of Suns. These objects, as shown by the calculations just did not have time to grow to such dimensions, if they were born small.
So some scientists began to believe that supermassive black holes are born in more exotic scenarios as a result of the collapse of a giant cloud of pure atomic hydrogen or by clumps of dark matter and exotic dark stars, whose mass may be hundreds of times higher than conventional lights.
In recent years, Hubble and other powerful telescopes in the world looking for the oldest black holes and their potential “germ” of using so-called gravitational lens, whose existence is predicted by Einstein’s theory of relativity.
It is believed that any concentration of matter of a large mass, including dark interacts with the light and causes its rays to bend, as do conventional optical lenses. Such an effect scientists call gravitational lensing. In some cases, the curvature of space helps astronomers to see svargaloka objects at the dawn of adolescence of the Universe.Recently Fania and his team got lucky – they managed to find a gravitational lens, generated by a very dim galaxy located eight billion light years from Earth. Its attraction is increased and bend the light of even more distant and ancient galaxy in the constellation of Taurus, remote from us at 12.8 billion light years, about 50 times, making the object visible to the Hubble.
This “starry metropolis”, named J0439+1634, unique and extremely interesting for several reasons. First, we are probably in the same condition in which it existed at the turn of the so-called era of reionization, a kind of “dark ages” of the Universe, when space was not yet transparent to light and other electromagnetic waves.
Second, in its centre, there is a record bright and large black hole, producing about 600 trillion times more light and other radiation than the Sun. Its mass, according to the most conservative estimates of astronomers, there must be at least 430 million times that of our sun, but in reality it could be significantly more.
In addition, “Einstein’s lens” was so successful that the scientists were able to study not only the quasar, but also neighboring cloud of gas. Their photos showed that J0439+1634 experiencing a record “boom”. Every year it generates tens of thousands of new stars, which is three orders of magnitude larger than in the milky Way and in other galaxies.
This, according to fan and his colleagues can explain how a black hole in the center of this ancient galaxy has reached such a large size in a short time. Such rapid formation of new stars is possible only in case if in the center of the galaxy are constantly large quantities of “fresh” and cold gas.
They plan to test this theory after the launch of the telescope “James Webb”, heir to “Hubble” that can see things like moving gas streams in the vicinity of the center J0439+1634. These observations will show how much it falls inside the black hole, and how its gravity affects the speed of star formation.