The Ukrainian government can establish effective control over export and import flows of goods. For this you need to implement a system of comparison of statistics on the volume of goods on the Ukrainian customs and border checkpoints of neighboring countries.
Such opinion on air of the program “Right to vote” expressed financial analyst Alex Kush, the correspondent of ГолосUA.
According to experts, is in the statistics of customs offices of Ukraine and neighboring countries contains accurate information about how much real goods delivered to the Ukrainian government and how much is exported.
“If to compare the volumes of exports from Ukraine, compared with imports in other countries, there is a large discrepancy in the numbers. For example, in 2011 China imports came in at 40% less than displayed in the statistics of the Chinese customs. On the way from the EU to Ukraine for about 25% of imports went to the grey area, on the way from the USA – 15%, CIS countries – about 10%, and it’s not because on the Eastern border of the most honest customs officers – they just skillfully coordinate their performance. And the total amount of variance in 2011 of about $ 15 billion. And if we look at the structure of taxes, the VAT accrued on the import of goods is about 250 billion a year. Reimbursement of export VAT is 120 billion. This is excluding customs fees and duties. This is a huge amount comparable to the amount of the annual state budget. This allows you to feed the entire “family” of financial-industrial groups”, – described the situation the expert.
A. Kushch said that the schemes implemented by stakeholders in the Ukrainian customs, lead to huge amounts of taxes foregone by the state budget.
“As for the schemes, in Ukraine the land is rich in talents in inventing schemes for tax fraud. Take the diagram with the “tax twist” or imported peresort. What is it? For example, the company buys fruit in Turkey, brings them to Odessa, sells on the market for cash and, of course, the importation of a consignment of goods pays VAT and is entitled to a tax credit for the same amount. A tax credit is a pity to lose, and the goods are sold for cash and it is not clear where to take non-cash means. The question arises: how to close the sale of goods on documents? As a result, this product is sold a second time, but, of course, fictitious – sold just, say, documents for this product. A company that receives documents for the goods, is entitled to a tax credit for the amount specified in the contract. As a result, the state loses the VAT that was paid by the importer. In business, you can only use a certain type of goods, therefore, builds up a certain chain of firms that transformerait product that you need. For example, if a construction company need cement, we’ll miss 4-5 companies this commodity chain, and fruits, oranges will turn into cement. There is an article of the Customs code of Ukraine. It allows the company to declare the customs value of goods – e.g. 50 cents per kilogram Chinese Slippers. The tax inspector does not agree with this value, in this case, the owner makes a security Deposit in the amount of tax liabilities and submits documents to court, contesting the decision of the customs authorities. Lured the courts simply packs stamped the decision in favor of these importers. The entrepreneur comes up with this decision and takes your Deposit, and the goods put into economic turnover. Thus, there are lots of schemes to avoid paying taxes or pay as much as do not mind,” the analyst added.
A. Kusch also said that if Ukraine will implement a formal mandatory method of comparing the statistics of the customs posts at home and abroad, tax fraud can be successfully checked and reversed. But in fact, neither the Executive authorities nor law enforcement officers do nothing to these flows of goods control.
“We have, unfortunately, all law enforcement agencies “feed” on the customs. And this is caused by a constant desire to strengthen the state’s fight at customs posts. We remember the recent statement of the Minister of internal Affairs (Arsen Avakov) that units of the national police go to the customs offices will have access to the automated system for customs data… you can still, for example, to bring in the National guard, to tear it from, for example, smuggling of amber and transferred to the Western border. By the way, there is just close, no need to do a lot to cover. You can still use combat aircraft, reinforced canine patrols. And armored vehicles to make custom posts… it all smacks of some ages. But if we look at the Customs Union, which operates within the framework of the common economic space in Europe, where 90% of transactions between business entities and the customs inspectors carried out remotely. There, the customs inspectors do not go with a flashlight, do not Shine the contents of trucks do not require you to count all the cans of condensed milk, that the truck carries to Poland. In Europe there is the office of e-customs. And in Ukraine, as reinforced by the human factor, which exacerbates the situation”, – said the analyst.
Earlier it was reported that because of the prosperous customs of corruption, Ukraine annually loses more than 4 billion euros. About it reports DW. So, this is stated in the investigation of the newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung, published on Monday, August 6.
It is noted that this amount is over one-tenth of the whole revenue side of the budget, and 2 times more the amount that Ukraine to 2018 wants to receive from the IMF, EU and world Bank. Süddeutsche Zeitung based on documents, customs and bills of lading, describes the machinations used in Ukraine to evade taxes. Imported goods during customs registration of the change marking. For example, umbrellas turn into brushes or mirrors – only one of the consignment, the state is losing thousands of euros. Danym publication the machinations involving police, prosecutors and the SBU. For illegal transactions the formation of new firms, which control the people around, customs officials, prosecutors and the police.
It is noted that according to the results of PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) survey, in 2018, with cases of corruption and bribery faced 73% of Ukrainian companies in comparison with 56% of respondents in 2016. Globally this figure is on average 25%. A third of companies surveyed in Ukraine said that in the past two years has received offers to give a bribe. Overall, almost half of the respondents believe that were dealing with economic crimes by 5% more than two years ago. According to PwC, the most common of such crimes in Ukraine remain, along with corruption and bribery, asset misappropriation (62% in 2016 and 46% in 2018) and fraud in procurement (25% and 33%).
We will remind, in July, Prime Minister Vladimir Groisman said that the state budget revenues from customs to the Odessa customs after the strengthening of the fight against smuggling, for the period 20-26 June, has doubled.